Стенд гражданской обороны
Civil defense stand in the abandoned NPRP electrical shop - «Everyone should know this»


Everyone should know about this!

It is these words that are written on this stand of civil defense, dedicated to the topic “training the population in means of protection against nuclear, chemical and bacteriological weapons …“. This booth is very interesting, so I want to show it to readers and subscribers.

So what are we talking about?

I found this stand back in 2018 in the abandoned NPRP Electroshop (Nizhnedneprovsky Pipe Rolling Plant) in the city of Dnipro. By that time, this stand was more intact and I regret that I did not remove all its elements then. The opportunity to remove the elements of the stand I had only now. Of the 60 glass information elements, about 40 remained more or less unscathed.

This stand has been (partially) preserved in its place to this day and this is how it looks on the video. But…

First, a small longread with emotions

Обучение населения способам защиты

Teaching the population how to protect against nuclear, chemical and bacteriological weapons is one of the most important measures of the civil defense of the USSR, aimed at protecting Soviet citizens from weapons of mass destruction.

As a result of training, every citizen should:

  • Know the damaging properties of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological weapons and methods of protection against them;
  • To know in the real conditions of an enterprise or a settlement (residential area) civil defense signals and the procedure for acting on them;
  • Learn how to use improvised means of protection against weapons of mass destruction and make an anti-dust fabric mask for yourself;
  • Gain skills in conducting sanitation, in providing self-help and mutual assistance.
Ударная волна - основной поражающий фактор ядерного взрыва

Possessing enormous force, the shock wave destroys buildings and structures, inflicts defeats on unprotected people.

Despite the enormous destructive power of the shock wave, shelters and shelters protect people from defeat.

As you move away from the explosion site, the damaging effect of the shock wave gradually weakens and then completely stops.

Ядерное оружие обладает мощным поражающим действием

The energy of a nuclear explosion manifests itself in the form of a shock wave, light radiation, penetrating radiation and radioactive contamination, which are the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion.

Since Soviet times, “indestructible” has been in a state of “cold war” and a constant paranoid tension of potential threats from the “Collective West”. It was not by chance that I wrote that it was on the verge of an inflamed meaning – I am by no means exaggerating.

Here’s an example for you.

Did you know that throughout the former USSR, most of the “standard” monuments dedicated to the victory in the “Great Patriotic” World War II are tanks (it’s good that we are now removing them and transferring them to technical museums), which in some magical way almost all (i.e. most of them, except for those where the urban situation did not allow this) are oriented with trunks in a western direction? Once again – GUN TO THE WEST, Carl! This is some kind of hidden sacred symbolism of the “victory conversation” – is it paranoia? Although one is worth it. Sorry I got a little carried away…

Previously, civil defense (CD) and civil defense (CP) were taught in educational institutions, enterprises had CP headquarters that periodically conducted theoretical and practical exercises (I showed one of these abandoned factory headquarters of the CP in this video).

Who knew… no, not like that… (despite the fact that intelligence assures that the “dung country” has been gradually preparing for a war with us since 2007), almost no one believed that the threat would come not from the “West”, but from “East”.
With the start of a full-scale invasion, the issue of putting old shelters in order, pumping water out of them, removing garbage from them, conducting electricity in them, decontaminating walls from mold, checking ventilation, painting and equipping protective rooms with furniture and drinking water became very acute. This was done, first of all, by local residents, volunteers and the same stalkers (because they understand this) – Valery from the ALTERKAM project.

Световое излучение

It is the main cause of mass fires in the lesion, it causes burns of varying severity to unprotected people.

Light radiation propagates only in a straight line and does not penetrate through opaque materials, objects that create a shadow, partially or completely protecting from light radiation.

Радиоактивное заражение местности

Radioactive contamination of the area can occur both in the area of a nuclear explosion, and far beyond it, following the trace of the movement of a radioactive cloud.

The area of radioactive contamination can remain dangerous for people and all living things for a long time.

Проникающая радиация

Penetrating radiation – a stream of invisible radioactive radiation, acting within 10-15 seconds after the explosion. It inflicts a defeat on unprotected people, resulting in the development of radiation sickness.

  • 500 x-ray – severe degree.
  • 200-300 x-rays – the average degree.
  • 100-200 x-rays – mild degree.

Radioactive radiation can penetrate into various structures. They loosen depending on the thickness and density of the materials they pass through.

And only later, when local leaders and deputies realized that “here is an opportunity for PR”, the bombers began to recover at public expense …… (and here you can pretty swear because) to be honest, they should be kept in all this time acceptable condition at the same public expense. And in the “West” shelters are still maintained and ready for use at any time – I already wrote about the state of shelters in Germany in this article.

The war lasts for many months – and to the missile-drone terror of the peaceful rear settlements of the country (I’m not even talking about the horrors in the occupied territories and the front line) from the “fucking neighbors” man-made terrorism has also been added. The explosion of the Kakhovskaya hydroelectric power station has become a horrific reality, so the possibility of a terrorist attack at the occupied Zaporozhye nuclear power plant is now taken quite seriously.

Experienced stalkers, just in case, took out chemical protection and gas masks from the cache, put fresh batteries on radiation dosimeters … The paranoids bought all the potassium iodide tablets from pharmacies and stocked up on modeling tape and canned food … Let her be! )))

But such things have not been joked about before, and the teaching of what to do in emergencies has not been neglected. At such information stands, which were always before our eyes, one could see what and how to do.

Therefore, in general, I agree with the inscription on the stand that «EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THIS»!

This stand was created in Soviet times, therefore, unfortunately, it is in Russian, but I think that you will understand everything anyway, so I will just post photos of these materials here.

Химическое оружие

These are means, the damaging effect of which is based on the use of toxic substances capable of infecting living organisms.

According to the nature of the damaging effect, toxic substances are divided into:

  • Nerve – Sarin, Soman, V-gases.
  • Skin blister – Mustard gas.
  • General poisonous – hydrocyanic acid, cyanogen chloride.
  • Choking – Phosgene.
Отравляющие вещества

Poisonous substances infect the air and terrain.

A cloud of air contaminated with poisonous substances moves with the wind. The defeat of people is possible at a distance of 10-15 km from the place where the chemical munitions fell.

Infected air flows into narrow streets, courtyards – wells, ravines and stagnates there for a long time.

Химический очаг заражения

The chemical focus of infection occupies a vast territory

The use of chemical weapons can cause mass destruction of people and animals, as well as contamination of water bodies, agricultural land, etc.

In addition, this information stand contains useful information on civil defense

– it is quite interesting and uniquely made in itself. Each block is printed on a glass plate using the photographic method of reshooting on a negative – as photographs are printed through a photographic enlarger, only here, instead of photographic paper, a photograph on glass. Most likely, these images are “ambrotype”. This is such a wet-color photographic (rather expensive, but quite interesting) process in which, after receiving the image, the photosensitive layer was protected with a layer of varnish, which increased the shelf life of such images (who wants details about what it is – read here).

In the case of these photographic plates, the layer with the image is covered with white enamel (enamel is the same varnish, only not transparent, but with a dye). The booth itself was made as a showcase of two wings, behind which artificial lighting was mounted, which, if necessary, turned on, so these photographic plates were illuminated from behind.
But, as one of my acquaintances suggests, “this may not be an ambrotype, but ordinary photographic plates” … Be that as it may, it is old and it is really difficult to understand what it is here.

Here’s an interesting find I found.

Who wants to add something to my message, discuss the find or just leave a comment (for Telegram users) – this can be done here “weissman_chat

Оборудование убежищ и правила поведения в них
  • Shelters should have a supply of water, a first aid kit, fire fighting equipment, tools for emergency rescue work.
  • Shelters are filled at the signal “Air Raid”.
  • In the shelter it is necessary to observe the established order and discipline.
  • If the shelter is damaged, protective equipment should be put on immediately.
Признаки применения химического оружия

The use of chemical weapons can be established with the help of special devices and by some characteristic external signs:

  1. By a small funnel, which may contain large fragments and remains of the ammunition body, as well as by drops and spots of poisonous substances.
  2. If you find any signs, you must immediately put on protective equipment and notify the surrounding population about this.
  • Shelters provide protection from all the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion, toxic substances and bacterial agents.
  • In cities, there are basement-type shelters, as well as free-standing structures.
  • The shelter has at least two exits and an emergency exit.
  • Inside, the shelter is divided into several compartments designed to accommodate people.
  • The inflow of fresh air into the shelters is provided by a filter-ventilation system so that contaminated air does not enter the shelters, they are sealed.
Подбор противогаза

It is very important to correctly determine the size of the gas mask. To do this, you need to measure the height of the face, – between the point of greatest deepening of the bridge of the nose and the lowest point of the chin.

The size of the mask can be found in the table:

  • Size 1 – from 99 to 109 mm.
  • Size 2 – from 109 to 119 mm.
  • Size 3 – from 119 mm and above.
Противогаз – хорошее средство защиты

A gas mask is a good means of protection only with skillful handling of it.

When receiving a gas mask, it must be carefully inspected, checked for serviceability and prepared for use.

Противогаз нужно одевать быстро и правильно

Hold your breath, close your eyes, remove the mask from the bag, grab the temporal and occipital bands with both hands.

Take off the gas mask upon leaving the infected area or at the command «take off the gas masks».

По сигналу «Радиоактивное заражение»

All citizens should immediately go to shelters, shelters or to pre-prepared premises.

It is possible that you will have to stay in shelters for a long time. Exit from them is carried out only with the permission of the duty officers for civil defense.

Animals are driven into the premises, especially valuable animals are put on protective equipment.

Бактериологическое оружие очень опасно!

It is important to timely establish the beginning of the use of bacteriological weapons.

This is indicated:

  • Droplets or powdery substances on soil, vegetation, etc.
  • The remains of air bombs or large fragments.
  • Accumulation of live or dead insects and rodents.

If you find any of these signs, you need to put on protective equipment and report to the nearest medical facility.

Защита от бактериологического оружия

Protection against bacteriological weapons is provided by shelters and individual means. Specific means of antibacterial protection are also used.

  • Special protective vaccinations that create the body’s immunity to diseases.
  • Serums are a means of preventing the disease and quickly helping the sick. They are introduced in cases where the pathogen is known.
  • Drugs – antibiotics are used if the causative agent is unknown.

Preventive vaccinations and medications protect against serious diseases.

Ликвидация бактериологического очага заражения

In the event of an outbreak of especially dangerous diseases, quarantine is introduced.

If a less dangerous pathogen is used – observation.

  • Entry into the quarantine zone and exit from it is prohibited. It organizes a commandant service.
  • In the quarantine or observation zone, the movement of people and vehicles on the streets is limited.
  • In the quarantine area, trade and supply of food and necessary items to the population is organized by civil defense services.
  • Medical formations and sanitary posts introduce door-to-door rounds to measure temperature and carry out emergency prophylaxis.
Правила ухода за инфекционными больными

One of the main sources of many acutely infectious diseases is a sick person.

The speed of elimination of the bacteriological focus of infection depends largely on the organization of the population.

Каждому гражданину необходимо

In the event of a threat of attack on our country, the population will be notified about it.


  • Remove curtains from windows and doors, pack books, remove clutter from corridors, stairwells, etc.
  • Prepare a home first aid kit, individual dressing and anti-chemical packages.
Действия населения в сельской местности
  • Put stocks of food in barrels, boxes, glass and earthenware and keep them in cellars, pantries.
  • Prepare cattle yards and shelters for the most valuable animals and create stocks of feed and water there.
  • It is especially important to build and equip shelters, cellars, cellars.
В случае возникновения угрозы

In the event of a threat of attack, the population from large cities can be evacuated.

In order for the evacuation to be successful, you must:

  • Without waiting for any orders, prepare the apartment.
  • On the road, take the most necessary things and a supply of food. Attach tags to items.
  • Having heard the order to evacuate, take the prepared things, products, documents and report to the assembly point.

Organization and discipline are essential throughout the evacuation!

Своевременное предупреждение

To timely warn the population about the danger of an attack, there are civil defense signals.

  • Air raid signal. The text is transmitted over the radio broadcasting network, by sirens and intermittent signals for 2-3 minutes. You need to act on this signal quickly, but without fuss.
  • Citizens at home must turn off gas, lighting, take protective equipment, personal documents and a small supply of food and drinking water.
  • Warn neighbors and immediately head to a shelter or shelter.

Under no circumstances should you stay in the apartment!

Действия населения по сигналу «Воздушная тревога»

If the signal is caught in a store, cinema or other public place, then the administration will indicate the location of the nearest shelter or shelter.

Citizens who find themselves in an unfamiliar area or a tram, bus, trolleybus during the signaling, the location of shelters or shelters will be indicated by civil defense posts.

If you find yourself on the outskirts of the city when the signal is given, you need to quickly leave the city. The movement of all types of transport is allowed only towards the outskirts.

It is possible to leave shelters or shelters by the “Air Raid End” signal, which is transmitted by radio and means that the threat of an air attack has passed.

Действия в очагах заражения

When shelters are damaged.

  • If the shelter is located in an infected area, the population leaves it by special order.
  • Protective equipment is put on before going out.
    Signals “Chemical attack and radioactive contamination” mean that the territory of the city or district has been contaminated with OM or RW. On these signals, people put on protective equipment and take cover.
  • When driving through the contaminated area, you must take precautions and move only along the passages in the indicated direction.
  • If the main exits are destroyed, people exit through the emergency exits.
Действия населения при внезапном ядерном взрыве

If a nuclear explosion caught on the street, it must be used for protection.

Мероприятия по ГО

Every citizen should familiarize himself with the civil defense activities carried out at the place of work and residence.

  • Study the location of shelters, shelters and assembly points.
  • Know the means and methods of signaling civil defense.
  • Know the location of fire posts, cranes, fire extinguishers and other fire extinguishing equipment.
  • Know the places – inputs of utilities and energy networks and the procedure for shutting down in the event of an accident
Ликвидация последствий ядерного нападения

Civil defense formations and military units will operate in areas of severe destruction.

The population will be involved in rescuing people, dismantling rubble, arranging driveways and other work in zones of weak destruction.

Спасение людей из под завалов

For a quick search for the affected, it is necessary to organize a continuous search. Having found the victim, first of all, it is necessary to free him from the rubble.

If you find someone struck in the depths of the blockage, you must immediately notify the commander of the rescue formation.

When working in the rubble, you must be careful and follow safety rules.

Спасение людей из поврежденных зданий

In case of collapse of individual sections of flights of stairs, people are taken out along the boardwalks

The descent of people from the upper floors can be done using a ladder or using a rope.

Тушение пожаров и спасение людей из горящих зданий

Fires can arise not only from light radiation, but also from the destruction of heating stoves, gas networks and other causes.

You can pass through heavily smoky rooms by bending over or crawling, covering your mouth and nose with a wet piece of cloth.

Устранение повреждений на коммунальных сетях

Accidents and damage to water, gas, energy and other networks can occur in a nuclear lesion.

  • To remove radioactive substances from the surface of the territory, buildings and various objects, decontamination is carried out.
  • The decontamination of the territory and structures is carried out by civil defense formations.
  • The population will decontaminate clothes, shoes, household items.
  • During decontamination, the ceiling, walls, floor are washed, wiped or cleaned with a vacuum cleaner.
  • Decontamination should be carried out in protective equipment to avoid getting radioactive dust on clothes or shoes.
Все население должно уметь

The entire population should be able to provide first aid to the injured and to themselves.

Наложение повязок на раны и обожженные поверхности

For bandaging, it is best to use an individual dressing bag, bandage, and, in extreme cases, clean linen material.

Before applying the bandage, it is necessary to free the affected part of the body from clothing, it is best to cut the clothing.

Depending on the site of injury, dressings are applied in various ways.

When applying a bandage to burns, pieces of clothing that are burned or adhered to the body cannot be torn off, they must be carefully cut off, and the bandage should be applied over the remaining pieces of fabric.

In the event of a fracture of the limb, both splints should capture the joints located above and below the fracture site.

In case of a fracture of the forearm, the splint is applied so that it also captures the hand. The bandaged forearm is hung on a scarf.

If there is an open wound at the fracture site, then a tourniquet, bandage, and then a splint are first applied.

Вынос и вывод пораженных

After providing first aid, the injured must be taken to a temporary collection point for the injured or to the place of loading onto transport.

Easily affected can get on their own.

Severely affected people are carried on their hands or on a stretcher.

When carrying, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the affected person and quickly provide assistance if necessary.

Способы искусственного дыхания

Methods of artificial respiration and indirect heart massage in the provision of emergency care to the affected.

In cases of sudden cessation of breathing or its violation, artificial respiration should be done by the method: from mouth to mouth and from mouth to nose.

With a sudden cessation or a sharp weakening of cardiac activity, an indirect heart massage should be used.

Самопомощь и взаимопомощь

Self-help and mutual assistance in case of damage by toxic substances.

In case of exposure to nerve agents, immediately put on a gas mask and inject the antidote under the skin or into the muscle using a syringe tube or take a pill in your mouth.

In case of contact with the agents on the skin or clothing, immediately remove the drops with a swab and treat the affected area with liquid from an individual anti-chemical package, water, and solvents.

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